王熙凤服饰英译赏析
作者:猫小肉|2017年02月17日 10:46

曹雪芹生于南京江宁织造府,自小耳濡目染,对织造、服饰等有诸多了解,因此《红楼梦》中才得以呈现精美绝伦的服饰描写。小说中的服饰,不仅是文学的需要,还是历史的写照,同时体现了任人物的内心情感、社会地位、性格特征等诸多方面。但多样复杂的描写也加大了翻译的难度,本文将比较杨宪益和霍克斯版本关于王熙凤服饰的描写,以小窥大。

例子: 这个人打扮与众姊妹不同,彩绣辉煌,恍如神妃仙子。头上带着金丝八宝攒珠簪,绾着朝阳五凤挂珠钗,项上戴着赤金盘螭璎珞圈,裙边系着豆绿宫绦双衡比目玫瑰佩,身上穿着缕金百蝶穿花大红洋缎窄褃袄,外罩五彩缂丝石青银鼠褂,下着翡翠撒花洋绉裙。

杨译:Unlike the girls, she was richly dressed and resplendent as a fairy.

Her gold-filigree tiara was set with jewels and pearls. Her hair-clasps, in the form of five phoenixes facing the sun, had pendants of pearls. Her necklet, of red gold, was in the form of a coiled dragon studded with gems. She had double red jade pendants with pea-green tassels attached to her skirt.

Her close-fitting red satin jacket was embroidered with gold butterflies and flowers. Her turquoise cape, lined with white squirrel, was inset with designs in coloured silk. Herskirt of kingfisher-blue crepe was patterned with flowers.

霍译:She was dressed quite differently from the others present, gleaming like some fairy princess with sparkling jewels and gay embroideries.

Her chignon was enclosed in a circlet of gold filigree and clustered pearls. It was fastened with a pin embellished with flying phoenixes, from whose beaks pearls were suspended on tiny chains.

Her necklet was of red gold in the form of a coiling dragon.

Her dress had a fitted bodice and was made of dark red silk damask with a pattern of flowers and butterflies in raised gold thread.

Herjacket was lined with ermine. It was of a slate-blue stuff with woven insets in coloured silks.

Her under-skirt was of a turquoise-coloured imported silk crepe embroidered with flowers.

解析:1)此段以林黛玉的视角描写王熙凤在书中的第一次出场。穿衣饰品都极尽奢华,表明王熙凤在贾府与众不同的身份地位,同时也显现了她的个性张扬。

2)“金丝八宝攒珠髻”是一种特殊的发髻,用金丝穿绕珍珠和镶嵌八宝支撑的珠花发髻。“八宝”又称“八吉祥”,是轮、螺、馓、盖、花、罐、鱼、肠八种实物的佩饰。杨译为“Her gold-filigreetiara was set with jewels and pearls”,其中的“tiara”为女士冕状头饰置于头顶,但实际上这一发髻应该是盘在脑后的。因此霍译“Her chignon was enclosed in a circlet of gold filigree and clustered pearls”更为贴切。

2)“豆绿宫绦双衡比目玫瑰佩”,“宫绦”是一种系在腰间的悬挂饰物。“衡”为佩玉上部的小横杠,用以系饰物。“比目玫瑰佩”是一种用玫瑰色的玉片雕琢成的双鱼形的玉佩。杨译大部分翻译正确,但缺失了“比目”,“鱼”的意象。这句霍克斯直接删去不译,对于不熟悉中国古代服饰的译文读者而言,霍译更流畅,容易理解,但对于专门研究中国历史或传统服饰的读者而言,文化价值有所缺失。

3)“窄褃袄”为紧身的袄子;“五彩缂丝石青银鼠褂”中的“缂丝”,又称“刻丝”,是一种经彩纬显现花纹,形成花纹边界,具有如犹如雕琢缕刻的效果,且富双面立体感的丝织工艺品,宋元以来一直是皇家御用织物之一,常有“一寸缂丝一寸金”和“织中之圣”的盛名。两位译者对于“袄”、“褂”的处理值得商榷,比如原文“褂”指的是妇女在棉袄和裙子外穿的一种长至膝盖下方的宽大的长外衣,杨译为“cape”指”斗篷、披肩”,虽有些类似但仍然相差甚远。而霍译的“jacket”指“短外衣”同样不合适。

4)两位译者在着力再现服饰特点的同时,也注重原作的语言特色。曹雪芹对王熙凤的初次登场的描写,用词十分讲究,多用排比,句子对仗工整,读起来朗朗上口。而两位译者也注重保留排比句式,如杨译“Her gold-filigree tiara……”, “Her hair clasps……”, “Her necklet……”等,和霍译 “Her chignon……”, “Her necklet……”, “Her dress……”等。

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